Gliomatosis cerebri

Oncology

Introduction to the nervous system

The nervous system has three main functions: sensorial input, integration of data and motor output. Sensorial input occurs when the body gathers information or data using neurons, glia and synapses. The brain then processes and integrates this data. After the brain has processed the information, impulses are conducted from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands, which are known as motor outputs.

Classification of the Central Nervous System (CNS)

The nervous system consists of two major components: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord

CNS
Scheme of the central nervous system components. Adapted from Wikimedia

 

The brain is subdivided into different parts that are responsible for different purposes  They include  movement, sensitivity, coordination, conduct, memory, as well as dozens of others functions. The the brain is formed by the cerebral cortex, the basal ganglia and the olfactory bulb, along with many other structures.

The brain’s cerebral cortex is the outermost layer that gives the brain its characteristic wrinkly appearance. The cerebral cortex is divided lengthways into two cerebral hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum. Traditionally, each of the hemispheres has been divided into four lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. 

lobes
Scheme of lobes from the encephalon. Adapted from Wikimedia

 

Although we now know that most brain functions rely on many different regions across the entire brain working as a network, it is still true that each lobe carries out the bulk of certain functions.

 

Functions developed by different regions of the cortex. Wikimedia
Functions developed by different regions of the cortex. Wikimedia

 

Last modified
16 October 2019
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