Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common eye cancer in paediatrics, affecting mainly young children. However, with early detection and current treatments, RB is now a highly curable cancer. In developed countries such as Western Europe, the US and Canada, the disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years of diagnosis is higher than 90%. That means that more than 90% of children diagnosed and treated in these countries will survive and be disease-free at 5 years after their diagnosis, and likely disease-free for life. However, children with RB in other areas of the world, where the diagnosis is delayed and the resources for treatment are limited, the DFS at 5 years after diagnosis ranges from 70% to less than 30%.